Karate originated in Japan and was introduced to the region by Gichin Funakoshi in 1922. It was designed as a method of combat when weapons were not available. In essence, it was introduced as a way of self-defense and not a sport. This form of martial arts, along with others known in the far east, is based on mental discipline and spirituality and influenced by honor.
While in modern times, it can be argued that Karate is not solely used as a form of martial art or budo. It is also seen as an international combat sport. This is often seen in the summer Olympics, such as the Judo competition. Medals in Karate are also awarded in competitions where points are accumulated by connecting with kicks and punches.
Therefore, people can argue that Karate is both a martial art and a sport. Let’s examine both in further detail.
Karate as Martial Art
Most of the time, students join these classes to learn how to fight and defend themselves. Some might join just for the exercise to increase their fitness level in a more non-traditional way. In most cases, people will not treat Karate as a sport, after all, its roots are in fighting, and that trend of thought hasn’t dwindled significantly over the years.
Not in all cases, but in general, with traditional forms of Karate, a large portion will be focused on respect and discipline. On the other hand, sports Karate is focused on winning competitions instead of the progression mentally through the years of advancing martial art. This is the primary focus as opposed to the physical aspect against another person.
Karate as a Sport
In Karate, excessive contact isn’t allowed. However, unlike boxing or mixed martial arts, you cannot just pound the opponent into submission. The goal isn’t to pummel the opponent but to gain points through skills, techniques learned, and talent.
For instance, instead of using the same punch or combination of punches as in boxing, in sports Karate, you can use kicks, trips, and feints. In a match, starting out too quickly, aggressively, and forcefully could result in a disqualification, but that depends on the referee and how lenient or strict he is with the rules.
Karate also doesn’t allow grabbing the opponent’s uniform (known as a gi) with both hands. Using one hand is perfectly fine and necessary in some cases, but both hands are illegal.
Since it is a striking art form, this is encouraged much more than just grabbing. During a competitive match, headgear is often used to protect against concussions. Against, when thinking of it as self-defense, headgear would not be worn.
Karate as a sport also has an out-of-bounds area. This is basically in play to prevent competitors from shying away from combat. If a competitor goes out of bounds, the position will reset in the center of the mat.
You can see that Karate as a sport has a firm set of rules to follow, showing this is more about precision, skill, mental focus, and strategy than pure physical combat. Using it as a form of self-defense is entirely different, as you will use any means possible and as much force as needed to ward off an attack.
Karate as a Crossover
By now, you will see a crossover between traditional and sports Karate. Just because it doesn’t use excessive force and shows more technique, it doesn’t mean that competitors aren’t as talented as those engaged in traditional Karate.
Take a case where a person with a lower belt in Karate is against a senpai with years of experience. The seasoned senpai may have never engaged in sports competitions, but that doesn’t mean he or she couldn’t defeat a lower belt that has won competitions. This is because there is a crossover between what is taught for competition and self-defense.
Karate Combat, for example, is a full-contact Karate league with its own set of rules, such as five seconds of ground strikes if the opponent is put to the mat.
This is not allowed in sports Karate and is an excellent example of a crossover between sports Karate and self-defense. After all, you may need to strike an attacker repeatedly while down when defending yourself.
Tests Skills Under Pressure
While Kumite is excellent for helping learn and develop techniques, it’s not the same as applying what is learned in competition, where points are involved in determining an outcome. While being nervous is bound to happen, perhaps even to the point of panic, this can be a great thing.
It will help you control your nerves and focus more mentally. Basically, anything that puts you out of your comfort zone will make you stronger. In essence, sports Karate can help you improve your ability in a self-defense type of atmosphere.
Remember also that competing is not always easy and necessarily fun, depending on the circumstances of the match. There’s nothing better to increase mental fortitude than putting yourself in an uncomfortable position. Therefore, it’s clearly as much a test of mental toughness as it is a test of physical toughness.
Has Traditional Karate Started to Fade Away?
To many purists, this answer is a resounding “yes.” The Kyokushin form is a full-contact, stand-up form of Karate that can be very brutal. It involves very physically demanding sparring compared to other variations of Karate. Because of its nature, those involved dislike sports Karate, which is about gaining points, not defending and attacking.
Proponents of traditional Karate will argue has created rules that have made it less forceful and much softer. Clearly, when using for self-defense, you can hit and should hit someone as hard as possible to ward off an attacker.
The main criticism is that sports Karate is too strict with its rules, which takes away from the traditional Karate concepts based on physical combat and fighting when weapons were not available.
Why Karate is a Sport
- It has competitions
- It has rules
- It is an athletic activity
- It is a form of physical fitness
- It is in the Olympics
- It allows you to spar against others
- It can be improved upon with practice
Why Karate is Not a Sport
- Can compete without fighting
- It is meant for self-defense in the traditional sense
- It does not have the same physical demands as other sports
- It is a martial art
- There are no teams in Karate
It can be defined as both a martial art and a sport. This carries over into other forms of martial arts as well. It is a form of physical exercise that some people use not to compete or for self-defense but to keep in shape.
Practitioners and competitors probably don’t categorize themselves as martial artists or Karate sportsmen. They fit into the “both” categories. As a martial art, it teaches participants mental toughness and fighting skills.
Like in many aspects of life, people will try to put it into a single category, but it’s not black and white. It’s better to accept that it fits both as a sport and a martial art depending on how people think about it.